Notes by Lorraine Wildbore, Dec 2019
The Dairy House, originally built as two separate cottages were constructed on a former piece of glebe land with a parsonage in 1870 for John Berners, owner of the Woolverstone Estate (below are two newspaper articles declaring the exchange of glebe land in 1917 and 1918). The cottages were built to house a dairyman and a cowman for the new “modal dairy”. To the north of the two cottages was the dairy (creamery), with white marble topped tables supported by ornate white stone legs.
To the rear of the property and above the entrance to the two original cottages is a date stone with the initials J.B. and 1870. A large bell hangs on the right side of the opening dated 1839, there is no known record to explain the significance of the bell.
Further modifications to the property included:
1902 - The cattle shed was constructed, large enough to house twenty-four cows and a water tower.
1986 - The two cottages were merged to form a single dwelling and a kitchen created from the rear courtyard space between the cottages.
1997 - A large garage was built.
1999 - Farm buildings were converted to an office and indoor swimming pool
2007 - A first-floor bedroom and ensuite shower-room were added above the flat roofed kitchen.
2008 - A single-storey building was also added to the south side
|Article in the Ipswich Journal dated 5thJuly 1817
||Article in the Ipswich Journal dated 15th May 1819
Photos taken outside, May 2019
Previous residents and workers at the Dairy
The decennial census provides useful information about the cottage residents and workers from the time the Dairy Cottages were built, obviously any changes in between the reports being completed will not be reflected here but from the records we can see these people lived and worked here:
In the 1881 census James English is recorded as the Cowman, address The Park.
Frederick Scrivener, age 11 is recorded as the Cowboy, address Park Gates (otherwise known as Scriveners cottage at that time).
Joseph Brown, Coachman is also living in The Park.
As cowman James English is likely to be living in one of the two cottage and Joseph Brown the other.
James Sheppard, Head Gardener is also living in The Park, the Head gardener generally resided at Thatched cottage.
The 1891 census records Joseph Brown, Coachman to be living at Dairy Cottage.
Joseph Everett, Cowman and wife Jane Everett, Dairy woman are living in the cottage next door. It’s not clear which cottage they are living in, however it is likely that the Joseph and Jane are living in the north cottage next to the creamery.
The 1901 census shows one cottage to be inhabited by Pate Ellen, Dairy maid (single, aged 27) and her maid and the other by James Mabbutt, Dairyman living with his wife Henrietta from Canada.
Walter Rush, Ipswich Road, is working as a Dairyman on a farm, presumably on The Park.
In the same year John Weeding from the Ipswich Road is recorded as a stockman and his son a stock boy on a farm, presumably working at the dairy.
Benjamin Cattermole, White House Cottages is working as a stockman.
Jesse Pulford, Ipswich Road working as a cowman.
George Walton, Ipswich Road is working as an under stockman.
Albert Rush, age 14, Ipswich Road (Opposite Gardens) is working as a cowshed boy.
The Dairy, Henry George, cowman and his wife Sarah is dairywoman. Living with then is Elizabeth Ann Garrett (assistant) is dairymaid.
The Dairy cottage next door is Ellen Howard, working as a domestic cook.
Walter Rush age 36, living Ipswich Road, working as a cowman.
1937 Sale of Woolverstone Estate
The Woolverstone Hall Estate was put up for sale in December 1937 by direction of Geoffrey H. Berners, the Auctioneer were Messrs. Leslie Marsh & Co and Garrod, Turner & Son. The description for the cottages were as follows:
The cottages, dairy and buildings were described in the sale catalogue as follows:
brick built. Oak stud and plaster with tiled gabled roofs, each having Five Rooms, Back House and W.C. An enclosed covered passageway gives access to
brick built and tiled (a copy of Sandringham), includes a Cooling, Seperator and Bottling Room, the Dairy with tiled floor and marble shelves and centre table, and a Waiting Room; outside a verandah. The whole is surrounded by well-kept lawns.
comprise brick built and slated range of Mixing Place, Calf Cribs and Hay Store. A Neat House for twenty four cows with loose blue Stafford brick floors and glazed managers and water troughs. Lean-to Meal House; a range of four Loose Boxes; a lean-to range of Loose Boxes and Sheds, and brick manure bin.
As the war begins in 1939 a National register was taken in order to list every civilian in Great Britain and Northern Ireland. The register was a useful source of information in coordinating the war effort at home. Unfortunately, the 1931 Census was destroyed during an air raid in London and the 1941 census was never completed, therefore this is the only record civilians between the 1921 and 1951 census reports.
The information recorded for the Dairy House:
Dairy cottage: Violet Smith (domestic duties)
Park Dairy: Bartley Poole (farmer heavy worker) and one other person (the name is not yet released).
Walter Rush is still working at the dairy as a cowman (living Main Road No.30)
1943, Head Herdman
Philip Gooch (1929-2003), Head Herdsman
The following is an account adapted from Margaret Gooch’s recollection of her husband’s work at the dairy:
Philip was employed as a herdsman by the Stennett family of Whitehouse Farm at the age of 14. The cows where kept in the meadows on the Woolverstone Park which formed part of the Dairy.
Philips day started at 4.30am, he generally worked 70 hours each week, with no holidays. Philip and his wife Margaret had two children, one daughter and one son, however due to the long hours Philip didn’t get to spend much time with them. Each and every morning Philip would bring the cows back from the meadows to the dairy for milking, this usually took around an hour as the meadows stretched as far as Berners Lane. After milking the cows returned to the meadows for grazing until 2pm where the whole process was repeated. The meadows were rotated allowing the grass to regrow and were surrounded by electric fencing. In the early days the milk collected for that day and put into churns (unpasteurised, as there were no facilities at Woolverstone), years later the churns were exchanged for more modern bulk tanks. The milk from Woolverstone together with the milk from Freston was collected by bulk containers daily around 8.00am and delivered to the Milk Marketing Board.
In the early days there were only two or three cows but over time the numbers gradually increased to approximately 100 cows, including one bull. Margaret shared the story of Philip being charged at by a bull; Margaret had found a broken fork in the cow shed, it turned out that Phillip had used this fork to defend himself. Thankfully, Phillip lived to tell the tale.
Philip became farm manager and bought and sold cows and calves (mainly) at the Campsea Ashe, Colchester and Ipswich market, the record of these sales are still in existence today. Philip knew a good bull when he saw one, “Grafton Supreme” was a very expensive purchase at hundreds of pounds all paid for by Mr. Stennett from the Duke of Grafton’s Eastern Estate.
Mr. Hayward known by the nickname “Archie” was the previous herdsman and when he retired at the age of 96, Philip moved into Archie’s house within the village, where Margaret still lives today. Philip had one assistant working with him at the dairy at a time, although there were a number of different assistants over the years.
Philip dedicated 51 working years to the same farm and was presented with a long service award in 1994 at the Suffolk Show, by Princess Alexander.
1958 Sale of Woolverstone Estate
The Woolverstone estate was sold in 1958 by Direction of The Chancellor, Masters and Scholars of the University of Oxford. The Particulars of the estate and plans of the estate detailed every agricultural and residential property to be sold. The descriptions for the Dairy house were as follows:
The Capital Buildings
which adjoin Woolverstone Gardens are approached from the Main Road by a farm road running between the Holbrook Entrance to Woolverstone Hall and the Gardens. They comprise: A brick built and slate roof range of Cow House for 24, with blue Stafford brick floors, tubular stalls and central feeding passage, Mixing Place, Calf Cribs, Hay Store, Dairy, lean-to Meal House, range/of Four Loose Boxes and another lean-to range of Four Loose Boxes and Shed, Engine House and Brick Manure Bin. Main water and Electricity connected Drainage to Estate System
Current tenant of The Dairies Farm, Berners Lane Mr. G.E. Stennett (including sporting rights over the farm)
(the cottage on the south side),
It is now used as Woolverstone Police Station. The Cottage is semi-detached, brick built, oak stud and plaster, half timbered, with a tiled roof, and contains the following accommodation:
On the ground floor: Living room, sitting room, kitchen with tiled floor, sink and bath, large pantry, and W.C.
On the first floor: Three bedrooms
Let to Chief Constable of East Suffolk on a monthly tenancy.
The Adjoining Superior Semi-Detached Cottage and Dairy
The cottage is brick built, oak stud and plaster, half timbered, with a tiled roof, and the accommodation comprises:
On the ground floor: Living room, sitting room, kitchen with tiled floor, sink, and independent boiler, bathroom with bath, basin and W.C.
On the first floor: Three bedrooms.
Adjoining the house on the north is the Old Dairy Building, brick built and tiled and now comprising: Hall with tiled floor and dado; kitchen with sink; tiled floor and dado; Dairy with marble shelves and centre, double tiled walls and veranda round; store with tiled floor and dado.
Let to Mr. M. H Snell on a quarter tenancy.
John Kendrick with a Mr Griffith ran a mixed vet (domestic and farm animals) practice known as Leeson Griffith and Kendrick, which dated back to 1930’s in Black Horse Lane. In the early days they cared for working horses from the farms and docks. After Mr. Griffith retired John Kendrick continued to run a practice in Berners Street (50’s onwards) and a part time practice, opening 3 evenings a week, from his summer house in the garden of the Dairy House. In 1993 John retired and sold the Berners Street premises to Charles and James Bagnell, co. founders of the Orwell Vet Group. Charles and James continued to run the clinic in Woolverstone for another 18 months and John worked with them on a part time basis during this time. Charles and James wanted to continue serving the peninsula so eventually found a suitable premise in Stutton which is still running today.
After retiring John worked as a ministry vet for DEFRA for a few years. In 1996 John and his wife Ann sold the Dairy House.
1996 - purchased from John and Ann Kendrick by Sue and Tony Cotton
In September 1996 Sue and Tony Cotton purchased The Dairy House and moved in with their son Joseph, 2. Their daughter Leonora was born in 1998. The Cottons spent 4 years renovating the property, built a triple garage in 1999 and then purchased and converted the Dairy Barn in 2001. Subsequently the house was extended as a new bedroom was added in 2007 and a garden/sunroom in 2008.
2018, Sale of The Dairy
In November 2018, Ipswich High School purchased The Dairy with a plan to board 19 students the following September. The intention was to carry out the changes in two phases. Phase one was to renovate the house and phase two to renovate the barns to the back of the property and demolish the garage.
January 2019, Babergh planning issued permission for the change of use, conversion of the barns and demolition of garage, plus the construction of an additional barn-like structure for boarding students and staff.
In March 2019 the contractors Hills Building Group began the renovation of The Dairy house. The kitchen was removed and features such as the dairy walls, stone legs and stone windows in the creamery were restored to their previous state as were the window frames and large wooden doors.
A number of photos were taken in May as the project was underway and again in September to capture the changes and preservation of the house. A few have been included in this document, the remaining images will be kept together as a record for the future.
Photos May 2019, at the start of the renovation.
Photos September 2019. Getting ready for the first boarders.
The following pictures were taken on the day before the boarding students were due to move in. The main project had been completed but the final touches were still being made as photos were being taken but it gives you a good idea of the final look. The creamery was respectfully restored to resemble the way it once was, including new stone legs for the marble tables and stencilling on the walls repeated. The glass windows were removed, restored, and refitted.
The buildings at the rear of the Dairy shown in the pictures below, have now been converted into two rooms with separate entrances, each with ensuite bathrooms.
The bedrooms have been updated and a number of bathrooms have been added upstairs for the boarders.
There was a great deal of pride in the Dairy, this snippet from the Ipswich Journal describes it as the “modal dairy”.
“In another department of the farm, that of dairying, Capt. Berners took the deepest possible interest, and did much with the circle of his influence to promote good work. On festive occasions’ when the park has been thrown open, Capt. Berner’s modal dairy has always proved exceedingly attractive, and the arrangements and modern appliances have always excited the admiration of all visitors. Attached to the dairy are Swiss like residences for dairyman and cowman; and the deceased was somewhat proud –as well he might be- of his fine herd of Alderneys. All who accompanied the Dairy Farmers’ Association to Woolverstone on the occasion when the Eastern Counties were honoured by a visit by members of that famed and valuable organization, will not easily forget the kindly, courteous, and general reception which the gallant captain extended to all on landing at Woolverstone”
Saturday 9 May 1891 – The Ipswich Journal.
The following links have been included to show the process from milking to produce around the time of the Dairy in Woolverstone:
10 min footage of Dairy farming in Holbrook 1949
Attached at the end of this document is a transcribed article from the Ipswich journal which captures an interesting visit to the Woolverstone Park - The British Dairy Farmers Association refers to the model dairy. (The Ipswich Journal - Wednesday 23 May 1888)
Dairy Produce Exhibition, East Anglian Daily Times – 13th December 1892
Exploring The Past Through Place Names: Woolverstone, Silvia Laverton
The Woolverstone Hall Estate Sale Catalogue Messrs. Leslie, Marsh & Co and Messrs. Garrod, Turner & Son.
The Woolverstone Estate Ipswich Sale Catalogue Messrs. Clutton and John D. Wood & Co.
Sue and Tony Cotton, Charles Bagnell and Margaret Gooch thank you for providing me with extra detail to complete the Dairy notes.
The Daily Journal, and Suffolk, Norfolk, Essex, and Cambridgeshire advertiser, Wednesday, May 23, 1888
THE BRITISH, DAIRY FARMERS’ ASSOCIATI0N.
VISIT TO IPSWICH.
From the swash of competing churns to an historical address by a Lord-Lieutenant-from descriptions and discussions of the miniature butter-making to a ramble amongst some of the most beautiful of Suffolk scenery, is a wide range; still these were amongst the features of the comprehensive programme which on Tuesday was successfully carried out by the members of the British Dairy Farmers' Association at Ipswich. As early as ten o'clock the Ipswich Drill Hall was a scene of much activity, in which competing butter-makers were the centre of attraction, and where practical illustrations were given of the manner in which, by the exercise of a better scientific knowledge and the use of modern appliances, it is possible to produce at a profit the best butter in the world. At the public conference, which was opened in the Town Hall by an address of welcome by Col. LLoyd-Anstruther, M.P., and over which the Marquis of Bristol presided, there were read two papers of much practical value, one especially applicable to this neighbourhood, on "Dairy Farming in Arable Districts," by Mr. H. A. Howman, of Kingsbury, Tamworth, and the other by that well-known local agriculturist, Mr. J. A. Smith, on "The Distribution of Dairy Produce." Both papers, which were listened to with close interest, contained valuable suggestions and useful hints. What we did once we may do again. So said the Marquis of Bristol in referring to Suffolk's dairy farming record in the past and prospects for the future. This sentence contains the gist of all that will be taught by the visit of the British Dairy Farmers' Association to the Eastern Counties. Suffolk was long ago described as possessing “fat and fertile soil” as making butter worthy the envy and imitation of foreign countries, and as standing in the forefront of British dairy Counties. We have done wrong in allowing ourselves to fall behind in the matter of dairy products. To-day, as the Lord Lieutenant reminds us, we are fortunate in the possession of cows, soil, and climate favourable to dairy work; we have amongst our dairy farmers men of the highest influence ; the Prince of Wales is interested in improving the position of our dairy industries, the Duchess of Hamilton is showing us every day what can be done by thoroughly working a good modern dairy, Lord Tollemache gives practical encouragement to dairy work amongst his Suffolk tenants, and we have the Marquis of Bristol, Captain Hugh Berners, and practical farmers like Mr. Herman Biddell, Mr. George Gooderham, and Mr. J. J. Colman, M.P., leading the way in the breeding and improvement of our famous red polls. There is thus no reason why the Eastern Counties should not regain their good name as a dairy country.
After listening to papers and discussions which were much appreciated, the members of the Association on Tuesday afternoon made a pleasant trip down the Orwell by steamer, and at the invitation of: Captain Berners, R.N., visited the delightful demean of Woolverstone Park, where with much interest they inspected the Woolverstone dairy, and were privileged to enjoy at the hands of Captain Berners a generous hospitality, which will doubtless be remembered as one of the most pleasant features, of the Association's visit to the East of England.
The proceedings in connection with the visit of the British Dairy Farmers' Association commenced in earnest on Tuesday morning with butter-making contest at the Drill Hall, Ipswich. If any proof were wanting of the earnestness with which gentlemen composing the local Committee have throughout acted in the matter, it was appropriately afforded on Tuesday morning when Mr. Geo. Gooderham and Mr. George Fiske did not hesitate to appear in public with their coat off - one gentleman being even minus of his waistcoat - in their anxiety that no time should be lost in doling out the cream so that the operation of butter-making might be commenced without delay. Several of the principal residents of the town and of the county had taken the reserved seats in readiness to watch the process. Mr. J. E. Ransome and other of the stewards were in their places in good time, while Mr. D. F. Smith, Mr. J. R. Garrard, and other members of the local Committee, who have been exceedingly active throughout, were present ready to lend a helping hand. At about half-past ten the competitors in Class A, open to farmers' wives and female assistants, in the dairy in Suffolk. The first prize was £5 offered by Mr. George Fiske; and the second and third prizes £3 and £2, offered by Mr. W. Cuthbert Quilter, M.P. There were eight entries, viz.-Mrs. Waterman, Holbrook, near Ipswich; Mrs. Potkins, Bramford-road, Ipswich; Mrs. E. H. Gunnell, Pound Farm, Great Glemham; Mrs. Sarah A. Wood, Helminghamn, Stonham; Miss Emma Cowles, Brandeston, Wickham Market; Miss Sarah Ann Randall, Charsfield, Wickham Market; Mrs. Levett, Henham, Wangford; Mrs. Hart, Manor Farm, Henham, Wangford. The churns need included the old-fashioned one, and the more modern end-over-end. At last the butter came, and then came the most interesting feature of the operation, so far as the spectators were concerned, in the making up, and in this respect the operators showed the great dexterity which is the outcome of considerable practice. The cream was supplied by – Lord Stradbroke, 20 quarts; Mr. J. A. Smith, Thorpe Hall, Hasketon. 20 quarts; Mr. J. A. Smith; Akenham, 20 quarts: Mr. George Gooderham, Monowden, 10 quarts; Mr. George Fiske, Bramford, 10 quarts; and Mr. A. F. Nicolson, Ipswich, a large quantity. The judges were Mr. A. Tiedall, Kensington, and Mr. James Mackenzie, of Cork, and these gentlemen awarded the premier honour to Miss Cowles, Brandeston, Miss S. A. Randall, Charsfield, being second, the churn used in each case being end-over-end; the third prize was taken by Mrs. Gunnell, of the Pound Farm, Great Glemham, who bad an ordinary barrel churn. The competitors in Class B then entered the square. This was open to males and females residing in any part of Great Britain or Ireland. The first prize, offered by the President, was £5; the second, given by the Mayor of Ipswich (R. M. Miller, Esq.), £3; and the third, given by the Colonial College and Training Farms Company, Limited, £2. There were seven competitors. Miss Estcourt Newport, and Miss Fanny M. Holmes, Berkhampsted, being equal first. Mr. John Benson, Unthank, Longworthy, second, and Mr. A.G. Holmes, Leigh, Kent, commended. Four prizes were offered for 2lbs. of butter ornamentally prepared. There were but three competitors, the first being taken by Miss Emma Cowles; the second by Mr. J. T. Harrison, Fen Farm Dairy, Washbrook; and the third by Mr. J. A. Smith, Rise Hall Dairy, Akenham. On the other hand, there were 21 competitors in the class for 2lbs. of butter, fresh or slightly salted shown in single pounds. Mrs. Rigg, Hamels Park Farm, Buntingford, Herts; the second by Mrs. Baker, Overford Farm, Wytham, Oxford; and the third by Miss Emma Cowles - the last-named lady, as will be seen, was altogether a most successful competitor. Who are the fortunate people who have weekly supplies of Miss Emma Cowles dairy at Brandeston. The Marquis of Bristol distributed the prizes.
While the competition was in progress Mr, W. H. Lynch of Ontario, Canada, gave an interesting and, practical address upon butter-making. He first pointed out the defects of the Danish system, which was most largely in use in England, and which be described as the dry washing system in distinction from the American cold water washing. It was an open question whether the washing with cold water did not take away some of the finer qualities of the butter, but he advocated it as the simplest mechanical means of arriving at a fairly good average result. There were four important requisites in butter-making – one was the removal of all the butter-milk and cheesy matter, which injured the keeping qualities of the butter; another was the preservation of the grain, injury to which damaged the taste; the third was that it should be properly and evenly salted; and the fourth was uniformity in quality, which was most important in, marketing. When they made the butter as it was made in the competition that day, they had it all in one lump, with a great deal of the butter-milk in it, so that they had it defective at the very beginning; to get rid of the cheesy matter they had to work it about, and every stroke injured the grain and it was impossible to salt it evenly. In the course of churning the butter first appeared small particles, which, being lighter than the buttermilk rose to the top. He suggested that by far the better Plan was to draw off the butter-milk while the butter was in this state, and in order that the particles should not run together in one lump, plenty of cold water, or iced water where possible, should be put in and allowed to stand so as lower the temperature. This should be drawn off, and as it took off a good deal of cheesy matter, it should be repeated three or four times until it came off fairly clear. The butter was then like fine sand at the bottom - the best possible conditions for salting – and a strong brine should be made and allowed to stand with it in the churn for some time. They would then have the butter partly salted, and, the salting could be completed by turning the churn about and sifting on dry salt. By allowing the butter to stand for 20 minutes or half an hour in the room they would raise the temperature so that by putting on the cover over the churn, and churning for a few minutes, they would run it into three or four lumps, and the making up into roll was sufficient to work off what little surplus water there was. By this system he claimed that they attained all the four requisites he had mentioned in, the easiest possible manner. Having commented upon the absence of the use of thermometers and mechanical aids in the competition that morning, Mr. Lynch concluded by pointing out that if they manufactured their butter in a proper fashion England would not be so dependent upon outsiders for their supplies.
Col. LLOYD-ANSTRUTHER, M.P, said Mr. Lynch had been appointed on the Canadian Board of Agriculture, and there was no greater authority on dairy matters on the other side of the Atlantic than he. He had come from America specially to attend that conference, and he thought he should be expressing the wishes of all present in proposing a hearty vote of thanks to him. (Applause.)
Mr. GEORGE FISKE seconded the motion, and it was carried with cries of "All."
EXHIBITS, OF APPLIANCES.
There was a good show of dairy appliances. The stall upon which the largest, and most varied selection of articles was shown was that of Messrs. Alfred Wrinch and Sons, Ipswich, which was directly on the visitor's left on entering. On it were to he found complete appliances of the most approved kind for dairy purposes. The principal items were a number of Hathaway's celebrated end-over-end and barrel churns : the "Dorset" cream raiser, which is a self-acting separator, designed and introduced by Messrs. Pond and Son to enable those engaged in dairy work to obtain the greatest possible amount of sweet cream from a given quantity of milk at any season of the year; the "Ovifer," or spring egg carrier, a safe method of packing eggs for transit or storage; a neat, compact-looking box butter churn;' the “Alderney" and "Little Albany " butter workers; butter tubs, thermometers, milk testers, refrigerators, patent butter transit boxes, and everything that is needed for efficiency in, the dairy and safety in transit of dairy produce. There is also a collection of those fittings for the poultry-yard for which Messrs. Wrinch have gained a reputation. They have a stock of all the articles shown, and many of them are of their own manufacture.
Opposite Messrs. Wrinch's stand was that of Messrs. Woods and Co., iron founders, Stowmarket, the principal exhibition which were a specimen of their vertical steam engines and boilers combined. This was a pretty little machine of one and a half horsepower, especially adapted to dairy work in all dairies. It can be easily fitted up with some simple shafting, and is now, in use in a large number of dairies. lt costs but is. 6d. per day to work, and its value in the production of dairy produce is evident, and it will in the future be much more widely used. Messr. Woods who supplied the churns for the butter-making competitions, showed a number of Hathaway's end-over-end and barrel churns, and Bradford’s butter workers.
One of the most interesting exhibits to practical dairy keepers was “The Jersey” patent self-acting creamer, shown by Mr. C. K. Cordy, the Ipswich agent of Messrs. Thyss, Lockyer and Co., of London. We published a full description of these machines and their working not long since. It is claimed for them that the separation of cream is completed in from 12 to 15 hours, instead of 36 or 48, as under the old systems, and that there is from 20 to 25 per cent. more cream and butters obtained, and both are of fare better quality than if obtained by hand skimming. The makers have received valuable testimonial from Mr. F. E. Babington, Halesworth, and Mr. A. M. Rope, Leiston, among others from all parts of England.
A little machine which attracted a great deal of attention was De Laval's patent hand separator, " Baby," shown by the Dairy Supply Company (Limited), London. This, as the name implies, is the smallest separator made. It is intended chiefly for dairies with 10 or 12 cows, but even where only half that number are kept it can affect a saving which in less than one year will amount to at least the whole cost of the machine. In the construction of the machine the view has been to produce an easy working, simple and cheap machine, with a satisfactory skimming capacity. A crowd of spectators surround the "Baby" separator throughout the day, and it was kept continually at work to demonstrate, the simplicity and efficiency of its mechanism.
Another machine which came in for a good deal of attention was the Champion Cabinet Creamer, a substantial looking instrument, for which its makers claim that it raises all the cream between the milking, and is so arranged that the milk and cream can be drawn out without removing the cans from the cooler. A glass panel is fixed at the bottom of the can, directly in front of the doors of the cabinet, which shows when the milk is out. The cream can then be drawn into the cream pail, and it descends solid and unbroken. The can should then be washed out with cold water, and refilled with the next milking, thus all labour of skimming and scalding pans, or leads is dispensed with. By this system of setting milk 25 per cent. more cream is gained in 12 hours than in 36 hours by using pans or leads. The skimmed milk is quadrupled in value, and the increase in butter is 1 ½ lb. per cow per week. This Champion Cabinet Creamery process is a perfect deodoriser of milk, and at the same time guards against a danger tenfold greater - that of the milk absorbing outside taints and odours, as is now generally admitted It will, if set in open puns or leads.
THE PUBLIC CONFERENCE
was opened at one o'clock in the Magistrates' room of the Town Hall, the President of the Association, the Most Noble the Marquis of Bristol, presiding. There was a large company, which included the Earl of Stradbroke, Lord Gwydyr, Lieut.- Col. R. H. Lloyd-Anstruther, M.P., Sir Thos. Thornhill, Major Barnardiston, Mr John E Cooke, Col. J. T. Rowley, Mr. F. S. Stevenson, M.P., and the Mayor of Ipswich (R. M. Miller, Esq.)
ADDRESS OF WELCOME
Lieut. Col. R. H. LLOYD-ANSTRUTHER, M.P, then delivered the address of welcome as follows:- My Lord Bristol, my lords and gentlemen of the British Dairy Farmers' Association, I am proud that the pleasing duty has devolved upon me to offer you, on behalf of I our local Committees, and, indeed, of the whole agricultural community of Norfolk and Suffolk, a hearty and cordial welcome on the occasion of the first visit of your Association to the Eastern Counties. We hail with much satisfaction the advent amongst us of so influential a body of agriculturists, including as it does representatives of the dairying industry from all parts of the United Kingdom, and we feel that on important result of your visit will be to awaken a more lively interest in dairy farming in this county, and to stimulate improved methods in the management and commercial working of our dairies. (Applause.) The district you are about to visit is mainly an arable one, and for many years the production of corn has been our chief industry, and on the success of which we have justly prided ourselves. But now, year by year, it is becoming more painfully evident that in the face of falling prices we cannot hold our own with the foreign producer of wheat, and consequently the average under cereal crops is steadily decreasing, and the attention of our farmers is being drawn more to other systems of cultivation. I find on looking into old maps and other documents relating to the history of this county, that there is abundant evidence that prior to the Continental wars at the close of the last century the disproportion in Suffolk between arable and pastureland was far less than it is at the present day. The large cheese rooms that are still to be seen in our old farmhouses, and indeed the fact that we possess a special breed of polled cattle, are proofs that dairying was carried on to a much greater extent in former times. Pastures appear to have been broken up because it was found more profitable to grow wheat, and also, very possibly, on account of the decline of the woollen industry; the reverse process is now taking place in Suffolk, as well as elsewhere, and I hope we may have at your conferences valuable opinions given on the best systems to have pursued in laying down land to grass, and also on what is very important, the most effective methods of farming grass land, and of increasing the production of old pastures. (Hear, hear.) We may also expect that the importance of technical agricultural education will be discussed, and we hope that the present opportunity will not be lost sight of to take the necessary preliminary steps in this county for the formation of an Agricultural and Dairy School, and we are glad to know that the British Dairy Farmers' Association under your presidency is successful in establishing a school of their own. (Applause.) We recognise that in the Eastern Counties but a small proportion of farm servants seeking situations know how to make butter or cheese, and we believe that opportunities, of instruction such as might be given in short practical course would be of much advantage to all classes of agriculturists in our county. (Applause.) The results of agricultural technical education in Denmark are so remarkable that I may be permitted to allude to one fact connected with the dairy industry in that country. In 1860 our Vice-Consul, reporting on the butter sold under that name by Danish farmers, described it as excessively bad. Since 1860 no less than 10 dairy schools assisted by the State have been, started in that country, and whilst Danish butter is now recognised in the London markets of the best quality, the imports into the United, Kingdom alone have increased from 80,589 cwts. of the value of £422,479 in 1867 4to the quantity of 487,603 cwts., of the value of £2,669,128 in 1887 (Applause.) £15,000,000 are now annually paid by the British consumer to the foreign producer for butter and cheese, every pound of which was milk produced ourselves, and whilst farmers in this county can no longer grow wheat to pay, we believe that in many instances profit might be made out of dairy produce if we only knew the best way to work. (Hear, hear.) The Government is at length awakened to the importance of stimulating our declining agriculture by State grants to agricultural technical education, as recommended by the recent Commission presided over, by Sir Richard Paget and although, when we can pay the sum proposed to be given with the amounts annually, voted in aid of Schools of Art, and for instruction of a purely mechanical or manufacturing nature, the sum may appear inadequate to the national importance of the industry, still we hope that the commencement that, has been inaugurated in different parts of the country will develop in to much larger importance. (Applause.) We trust that the excursions that have been planned may prove of interest to ourselves, and in conclusion my Lord although no assurance of welcome is needed to yourself in this your native county where your interest in all that appertains to the advancement of agriculture and to the welfare of your neighbourhood is so well known and appreciated, we are gratified to see you on this occasion amongst us as president of a national association, whose main object is to promote such an important interest to our agricultural community as that of the great dairying industry. (Applause.)
The noble PRESIDENT, in acknowledging the very kindly welcome which had been accorded to the members of the British Dairy Farmers' Association through the eloquent mouth of his hon. friend, expressed a hope that wherever their road might take them in the expedition which they were going through the Eastern Counties during the present week, they might receive the same cordiality and the same welcome as had been extended by the speech of Col. Anstruther. He (the noble President) would follow Col. Anstruther in the expression of the hope that they might be able to be found in the Eastern Counties a dairy school. He felt certain that that was the only way in which that perfection could be attained in dairy farming which would enable the inhabitants of the Eastern Counties to compete successfully with the rest of the world. (Applause.) He had just come away from the very interesting ceremony at the Drill Hall, where he had been delivering prizes to one of the classes in the contest of butter-making, and so far as he could gather from the judges, though, no doubt, there was a great deal of spirit and energy in the competition, the knowledge of the competitors was not all that could be desired, and he could not imagine that any better chance of receiving instruction could be had than in a technical school. Making a few “egotistical remarks" his Lordship confessed that he was bewildered to know why he occupied the position that he did-(" No, no") -because he was perfectly certain that there was not one in that room who knew less of the methods and science of butter-making than he. Failing the presidentship, which was unfortunately impossible of his Royal Highness the Prince of Wales, whom all would admit that he would have been the best possible president there, not only from his intimate acquaintance with and interest in all branches of agriculture, but from his interest in dairy farming, of which they would have ocular demonstration when they accepted his kind invitation to Sandringham on Friday-failing his presidentship, be felt that there were many persons of distinction in the county who would better occupy the post then himself. He particularly mentioned Lord Tollemache. He was told that most if not all of Lord Tollemache's cottagers had facilities given them for keeping a cow. If that were done all over the county, he had no doubt, a great incentive would be given to dairy farming. He was afraid it was too true, as Col. Lloyd-Anstruther had said, that in Suffolk the art of dairying had practically been lost; but when he said this he did not mean to say for a moment that there were not many instances in which dairying was carried on with very great success-for example, the shop which had been lately opened in this town by her Grace the Duchess of Hamilton-(applause)-which he believed produced very excellent dairy stuff, and which was a great boon to the town. (Applause.) But then these were only exceptions, and exceptions they knew proved the rule. But as to raw material for dairying, he thought that we in this county were in an exceptionally good position. As to cattle, we fortunately possessed at present a breed which, whilst it certainly produced very good beef, produced also cows of no despicable character -(applause)-he alluded, of course, to the red poll cattle-(applause)-which Mr. Colman, in Norfolk, Mr. Herman Biddell, Mr. Lofft, Mr. Gooderham and others had done so much to maintain and improve. Then the question arose, why, having such excellent raw material, we did not do so well as we did in days past. Col. Anstruther had already given them the reason. At the time of the war, when corn went up to over 100 shillings a quarter, naturally people rushed into corn growing as they would to the gold fields, and the consequence was that pastures were ploughed up, cows sold, and less and, less carrots grown. The exportation of dairy produce first dwindled away, then almost ceased, and the production of milk, butter, and cheese became merely a matter of local and individual concern. In that case he thought they could not wonder that the race of dairy wives and dairy maids, for which Suffolk was at one time famous, became almost extinct with the collapse of the industry. Alas! the energy of the people of Suffolk, which enabled the county to be one of the chief wheat-producing counties in England, and which made one of the chief manufacturing districts in the kingdom, had been absolutely paralysed by low prices for wheat. But they might, he hoped, take some consolation from the thought that what we had done we could do again. Though he was unable to give them any instruction in the present methods of scientific dairying, it might perhaps be not inopportune if he gave them some evidence of the reality of Suffolk dairying in ancient times, and in doing so he would acknowledge the assistance he had had from his brother, Lord John Hervey. (Applause.) His Lordship then quoted from Camden's " Britannia" (1610) and Fuller's “Worthies of Suffolk" (1662), in which praises of Suffolk butter were sung. They would see, he said, from these extracts that dairy farming was once an industry followed successfully and profitably by the inhabitants of Suffolk, and therefore there was no reason why it should not again be attempted if only to alleviate the terrible trials through which the arable farming of the county had been passing. If the advent of the British Dairy Farmers' Association tended in any way to facilitate or advance the resumption of the industry, he was quite sure that we in this county would be swift to acknowledge the debt we owed the Association. (Applause.)
DAIRY FARMING IN ARABLE DISTRICTS.
Mr. H. A. HOWMAN, of Tame Hurst, Kingsbury, Tamworth, read a paper upon "Dairy Farming in Arable Districts," in which he advocated dairy farming in preference to corn-growing. The former did not require any special climate, it would do equally well in the dry climate of the Eastern Counties as in the moist, Humid one of the West of England. It was not necessary that a great deal of land should be laid down to grass, as the difficulty was solved by silos, by the help of which alone they were able to preserve for future use the surplus that there might be of any of the green crops after they had taken the best for consumption. The corn-growing took a secondary place on the land, and the green crops available were many and variable, but the staple ones he preferred to depend upon were autumn-sown rye and winter vetches, mixed with wheat or winter oats, and after those came lucerne. No hay was made upon his farm, as both cows and horses did equally well upon it. He must not hide from them the fact that the great difficulty in this question of arable dairy farming was that of labour, which was a serious item, because, if they sold their milk and had to meet trains, they must have sufficient supply of labour to do the milking to the minute. The proper course appeared to be to feed for milking in the first place, and when the yield of milk of any one cow fell to the point fixed upon as the cost of feeding, then either sell her as she was, or at once commence to feed her. Where the milk was dealt with at home the separator was a necessity. He should as soon think of going back to thrashing corn with a flail as dealing with the milk in any other way than by a separator as it came from the cow. The question of how to dispose of their produce profitably opened up questions which were beyond the scope of his paper, and he merely indicated that the getting into direct touch with the consumer was perhaps the most important thing of all; and next to that might be the establishment of creameries, where the proprietors were those who would send their milk to he dealt with at a central dairy, sending their milk to be separated and taking back the skim to be used on the farm, leaving the cream only to be dealt with.
Mr. ROMIEU, Surrey, proposed a vote of thanks to Mr. Howman for his paper, agreeing with him that in the Midland and Southern counties silage occupied a very important place in dairy farming, but he could not agree with selling a cow when it became dry. (Hear, hear.) Mr. GEORGE FISK seconded the motion. Mr. Howman was introducing to them a new idea, the principal thing they had had to depend upon to pay their rent and expenses being their corn crop, although they were not altogether satisfied with the prices. But he doubted whether the system Mr. Howman advocated would answer here, and he was of opinion that in this district the four-course shift was just as good as any other. The great question in these parts was what to do with the produce of their cows when they had got it. He lived near the town and sold his milk, but he should like to know whether the system Mr. Howman pursued had paid him during the past four years, and whether, if he had to sell his butter at a shilling a pound, there was any prospect of his doing better than by growing wheat and barley at the present prices? In spite of what had been said he felt that the corn crop must stand first in Suffolk and the cows come second. If they could produce butter to compete with the foreigner it might be different, but he feared that the Suffolk butter- makers had not appeared to advantage that day, and it, was very necessary that some method of teaching the art in this neighbourhood should be adopted. If he could sell a dry cow within £6 of the price, he had to give for a fresh calved one, he should sell them, but he generally found that be had to accept about half.
Mr. HERMAN BIDDELL, as he understood Mr. Howman's system, he kept his cows until they failed to give the quantity of milk which he thought they ought, and then he sold them. He should like to ask was there any land in the Eastern Counties which would stand such a system for three years? If he were a landlord or agent, if there was one system which he should prohibit on his farms it would be that very one. (Hear hear.) He kept a large dairy of nearly 40 COWS, and reared all the calves they bred until they were two years old, feeding them as well as they could, and he was satisfied that such a system as Mr. Howman had suggested would reduce the poor lands, of Suffolk to half their present fertility. (Hear. hear.) Mr.W. A. WILLS advocated technical education, in dairy work.
Professor LONG remarked that milk did not take from the land so large a quantity of its fertility as was commonly supposed. The real fertility of the soil was that contained in the ash of the milk-the lime, phosphate, &c, -and by the use of feeding stuffs it was easy to replace this fertility. As to the question of state aid, to which reference had, been made, his advice was not to wait for Government aid, for if they did, they might rest assured they would have to wait a long time. (Hear, hear.) The best plan was for the Suffolk people to start a programme of their own, following the example of the Cheshire gentleman and of the members of the British Dairy Farmers' Association in Buckinghamshire, and then they would no doubt obtain a grant, and a fair one indeed. (Applause.)
The discussion was continued by Mr. McCONNELL, and Mr. NUTTALL, and Mr. HOWMAN then replied to the discussion referring to the question of the loss of the fertility of the soil, he said he found that instead of exhausting the land, his system added to its fertility, for the reason you always had some green crop covering the ground, which was so essential to maintain its fertility. He had been asked when he sold his cows. His reply was that when a cow came down to I0 1b. weight of milk he considered it a loss to keep her, and he sold her and bought another in. He spoke against the use of oilcake for dairy cattle as spoiling the butter and the cheese, and in conclusion urged the necessity of weighing the milk, and the cow which gave the greatest weight for the year was the one to retain and value. (Applause.) The vote of thanks was carried amidst applause. The President then left the chair, and it was taken by Earl Stradbroke.
THE DISTRIBUTION OF DAIRY PRODUCE.
Mr. J. A. SMITH, Rise Hall, Akenham, then read a paper on "The Distribution of Dairy Produce." He pointed out that at one time Great Britain, besides supplying her own wants, exported butter to France, but during the last fifty years we had imported butter and cheese, foreign supplies increasing at a much greater ratio then the population. If our country was not adapted to the production of milk, butter, and cheese, there would be nothing to marvel at in the circumstance; but, considering that the soil and climate of the United Kingdom were generally well adapted for dairying, it was somewhat remarkable that articles of everyday consumption and delicacies like the finest butter, which did not improve by carriage from long distances, should be imported to the extent which they are now. The cows kept in this country were in proportion of about one in nine to the population, or fewer in proportion than in any civilised country, except Italy. With an annual increase of 400,000 inhabitants, we ought to increase our cows by 44,500 herd every year. But what were the facts? In 1860 there were 3,500,000 cows in the United Kingdom; in 1887, 3,946,000 cows; while in the same period the population increased from 22,778,000 to 37,091,000. Our home production signally failing to supply the increased demand, the foreign producer stepped in. For while, in 1860, we imported only 840,000 cwts. of butter and 583,000 cwt. of cheese, in 1887 the imports of butter and margarine reached 2,788,000 cwts, and of cheese 1,834,000 cwts. It should be noted that dairy produce had fallen in value less than any other commodity What then had paralyzed our native dairy industry? First and foremost, he placed the importation of animal fats, in the guise of butter. Then in the matter of distribution, the home producer is severely handicapped. The charge for conveyance on English railways was much in excess of Continental systems. Preferential rates were also in many instances given to foreign producers, and it appeared as if the railway companies conveyed foreign goods at a loss and recoup themselves out of the home producer. He hoped that, during the recent Session of Parliament, some legislation might be affected putting an end to preferential rates altogether. In the matter of internal railway rates for the conveyance of milk and butter, the companies might be a little easier. Perhaps the Great Eastern Railway Company could forego the charge, to every farmer sending milk, of Is. per week for porterage. This Company collected seawater at Lowestoft, and distributed it in the metropolis at a charge of 6d. for three gallons. If a farmer sent a similar weight of butter the same distance, the charge will be three times that amount, and something for the returned empty. The Parcels Post might at some seasons of the year be used for the conveyance of small quantities of cream and butter to suburban districts. The more dairy produce is handled, unnecessarily, by middlemen the more it will deteriorate in quality or become enhanced in price. In Ipswich the provision market is practically in a ruinous condition, and it was about the only institution which has not been reformed. It was typical, indeed, of the general indifference to the distribution of local productions. It appeared to him that we must boldly face the altered conditions of the times. If servants refused to undertake dairy work there are several courses open, either the farmer's wife or daughters must do the work themselves, or they must send the milk, cream, or butter to a factory. At the present time a considerable quantity of Suffolk milk is sent to London, or more recently to the new Condensed Milk Factory at Colchester. But there appears a decided limit both to the price and the demand for milk, and there was no reason why at least sufficient first-class butter should not be made in the Eastern Counties for the wants of the district. The bulk of Suffolk butter was fairly good in May and June, but at other times of the-year It was irregular in quality, and he had been informed by most responsible men in Suffolk towns that one-fourth of the supply was absolutely unusable-not fit to compete with margarine. In May and June farmers force Suffolk butter on the grocers, who were obliged to take it in exchange for goods. Consumers cannot be induced to give up the uniform foreign or city brand for the irregular and uncertain Supply of the country dairy, and, after an exchange of remonstrances, the inevitable result followed-the cows were fattened or sold off, and the farmer and his wife refused to be further worried with dairying. There were several private dairies in the district where excellent butter was made, worth Is. 6d. a pound all the year round: but these were not maintained for profit. If factories were established on large estates for the use of tenants, or elsewhere on co-operative principles, either milk, cream, or butter could be collected or delivered there in bulk, and treated and distributed in accordance with the tastes of modern consumers. Butter could be graded at the factory, and consumers would know what they bought; indeed, a local industry might be re-established, were the factory system extended. In conclusion, Mr. Smith urged the importance of technical education. Continental nations surpassed us in this particular. He trusted the Government would see their way to make grants in aid of education in dairying, as recommended by the Departmental Commission.
The MAYOR of Ipswich proposed a vote of thanks to Mr. Smith speaking as a trader, it seemed to him that if Suffolk was to be successful as a dairy county they must have a much higher standard of excellence than existed at present. He noticed that only one of the national prizes went to a Suffolk person that day, and that was only a fourth. The keeping qualities of Suffolk butter were not so good as that of the Southern counties and the Dutch and Normandy butters. In the winter the dairies could not produce enough, and traders had to buy butter - mostly foreign - from London, and in the spring there was such a rush that some had to be sent to London at unremunerative prices. He was glad to say that the Provision Market question was now under the consideration of the Ipswich Corporation, and he hoped something would come out of it, and that they might have a market worthy of the town. He held that every article of food of a perishable character ought, for the benefit of both producer and consumer, to be brought to one focus. (Applause.)
Mr. NEALD (Sussex) seconded the vote of thanks in a highly humorous speech. In touching upon railway rates, he said the Railway Company took him to London-48 miles-at the rate of less than a farthing a pound-(laughter)- while they charged him for conveying his butter the same distance in the same train a halfpenny a pound. (Much laughter.) He thought something ought to be done to remedy such injustice. (Renewed laughter.)
Mr. WEBB (Sussex) said it was but natural that the railway companies should reduce their rates to foreign producers who put on the rail tons of butter at a time. English men might get the same reduction if they set to work in the same way. He advocated the establishment of large, packing houses, in which the butter could be received straight from the dairies and made up and packed in the French fashion.
Mr. W. BENNETT (Ipswich) said a large provision merchant in London told him a few weeks ago that until recently he had bought all his fresh butter from 'Normandy, but he had now induced some friends in Devonshire to make butter for him in a factory, and sent them a Normandy box as a specimen. Now he received about 150 boxes a week; he received it fresh every morning, delivered in the railway vans, and packed in the best fashion. From his experience as a dealer in Ipswich he felt sure that no good would be effected in the dairy prospects of Suffolk farmers until they adopted either the packing system Mr. Webb had recommended, or-what he was still more in favour of- the factory system, for what dealers wanted was uniformity in supply, in quality, and in quantity. (Hear, hear.)
Mr. SMITH, in replying to the discussion, said he was convinced that there were no cows in England more valuable for dairying than the red polled breed if they were not injured by over grazing. The vote of thanks was unanimously accorded, and the proceedings ended with a vote of thanks to the President, proposed by the Earl of STRADBOKE, seconded by Sir THOMAS THORNHIILL.
VISIT TO WOOLVERSTONE PARK.
The programme for the day was a long one, and no it time was lost between the items; The conference did not finish until 4.15 p.m., and at 4.30 the company were conveyed in waggonettes and other vehicles from the Cornhill to the Landing Stage, where the steamboat 2 Norfolk, specially set apart by the Great Eastern Railway Company, was waiting to take them down to Woolverstone Park. About 150 (including some ladies) embarked, and every arrangement bad been made for their comfort, Mr. John Plower, the district superintendent, being on board to personally look after the arrangements. Unfortunately it was not high tide, so the visitors from afar could not see our pretty river at its best, and a dull sky and keen breeze made topcoats acceptable; but notwithstanding these drawbacks the trip was enjoyed, and the remarks made on all hands showed to that those who looked upon the surrounding scenery and for the first time were not disappointed. At the Cat House a landing stage of mud barges-cleaned up and rendered respectable almost beyond recognition for the occasion-had been made by the Ipswich Dock Commission, so that all were enabled to get ashore without the delay and inconvenience of a trip in a small boat. Capt. Hugh Berners, R.N., in spite of his advanced age had turned out to receive his visitors, and, his agent, Mr. Thomas Dodd, was present to act as conductor. Under the guidance of the latter gentleman, the party strolled through the park-one of the most beautiful in the whole county, and just beginning to assume a summer, appearance, although yet by no means at it best - up to the hall, where they first inspected the lovely fernery, in which, in a cool-looking, intricate kind of grotto, the choicest of ferns were ground, enlivened with flowering climber plants exquisite passion flowers and pot plants of all kinds. Then for some time they lingered in front of the house admiring, the pretty view through the old park trees of the river nearly up to Ipswich on the one hand, and down to Bloody Point on the other. The gardens, although the designs upon which they were laid out could be seen had not as yet been planted with their summer flowers, so that they did not present themselves in their full, beauty. But the enjoyment of the view was disturbed at six o'clock by the sound of the gong, and the party repaired to a large marquee at the back, where more substantial attractions, awaited them in the shape of a cold collation. Here their numbers were increased to nearly 300, nearly all the tenantry of the estate several with parties of ladies attending. The venerable host occupied the chair, and was supported by the Marquis of Bristol, Lord Gwydyr, Sir Thomas Thornhill, Lieut.- Col. R.H. Lloyd Anstruther, M.P., Mr. W. Cuthbert Quilter, B.P., Mr. A. C. Pretyman, Col .J. T. Rowley, Mr. B. B. Hunter Rodwell, Q.U., Mr. J. E. Ransome, Capt. H. E. Lacon, the Hon. and Rev. A. C. Baillie-Hamilton, Dr. W. A. Elliston, the Hon, and Rev. W. W. B. Pensonby, Mr. J. A. Hempson,the Rev. S. P. Hathaway. A large number of strangers from all parts of the United Kingdom were present, and pleasant indeed must this introduction to the representative landed estate of the Eastern Counties have been to them. Grace before and after meat was said by the Rev. F. Wood, incumbent of Erwarton and Woolverstone. After the meal was concluded the usual loyal toasts were drank. The CHAIRMAN thanked the company for their attendance, and the assistance and instruction they had given that day to Suffolk. agriculturists. He proposed the health of the visitors, coupled with the name of the Marquis of Bristol. (Applause). The Marquis of BRISTOL, in responding, thanked their host for the sumptuous entertainment he had given them, and for affording them an opportunity of seeing his beautiful grounds. (Applause.) He proposed" The health of their Host.' The toast was drank upstanding, with three times three. The CHAIRMAN, who on rising to respond, was received with loud applause, expressed his delight at the visit they had paid him. Had he been some 20 years younger ha did not know what he should have done, but as an old one he could only say that he fully appreciated the kind way in which they had received everything he had been able to do. He proposed "'The health of the Ladies." They had contributed much to the success of the day, and although they had not been able to send dairy women who could compete with those who lived up to their knees in! grass-(laughter)-he hoped they might have taken a lesson that day which would benefit them a great deal. He coupled with the toast the name of Lord Stradbroke. (Applause.)
The Earl of STRADBOKE having responded, the company adjourned to the dairy. This they found to be a pretty little rustic house situated in a lovely wooded ground, and looking more like a comfortable cottage than a farm building, though designed in every way for dairy work on the most approved principles. On the stone tables in the centre were specimens of butter, milk, and cream., The flat milk is all given away amongst the poor on the estate, this is only one of innumerable acts of generosity which have made the Berners family so beloved in the neighbourhood. Most of the party then walked across to the cow house, which is built on the same pretty model, with the interior spacious, airy and clean as a dwelling-house. The herd, which consists of 20 cows of the Channel Island breed, was much admired. The Suffolk cows could not be seen, as they are kept at the Home Farm. There being about half an hour remaining before it was necessary to start for the boat, the company separated into groups and wandered about the extensive gardens and greenhouses. This is the particular domain of Mr. John Shepherd, the, head gardener, a gentleman well known in horticultural circles, and every part of it hear traces of his loving care and skill. Everything is neat and trim; the hothouses are filled with the finest of flowers. There seemed no end to the fresh scenes of beauty to which the visitors were introduced, but one which particularly attracted was a long house, the roof of which was completely covered by two magnificent plants. One of them, Bougainvillea speciose, which was a perfect mass of blossom, occupied no less than 200 square feet of glass, and the other, which was another variety of the same plant, was as fine, but was not yet in bloom. By 8.30 the visitors had struggled down to the landing stage where the steamer had been lying since they left her, and soon afterwards they started. The moon shone high and clear in a cloudless sky, the tide was at its highest, the river looked at its best, and the trip was a most, enjoyable one, Ipswich being reached about nine o'clock. Tomorrow, Grey Friars Works (Messrs E. R. and F. Turner) and the Orwell Works, Ipswich, the dairy establishment at Greenham of her Grace the Duchess of Hamilton, Framlingham College, and Bury St. Edmund's willbe visited.